she never expected find were the men..

History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages

  10/02/2012       TOOZ      0 Comments

03/27/2006The Tragic self-destruction of Scholastic Philosophythat were not inherent to it. While, as has been noted in many places, one can say that with the birth (and death) of Christ History ceased to be a Tragedy and became (in Dantes sense) a Comedy, - that is, the direction of History was now rising, no longer falling - the actual history of Christian thought remained, in at least one way, a Tragedy for Etienne Gilson. The tragedy is the missed opportunity represented (for Gilson) by Thomism, which was (more or less) abandoned, in the wake of the ill-conceived Condemnation of 1277, for the (so-thought) `doctrinally sound via moderna. The deep cause of the Great Condemnation was the importing of Arabic (or Islamic) philosophy, most especially the philosophy of Averroes, into the Latin West. Now, in my opinion, Gilson, while understanding correctly that the Latins mainly learned from the Islamic philosophers (Falasifa) and not the Islamic (Asharite) theologians, overestimates the piety of the falasifa. His work, on this point, is dated - it lacks, for instance, the relatively recent editing/publishing of some crucial works of Farabi - but, nevertheless, he gives an intelligent, and essentially correct, reconstruction of how the Latins understood their Islamic predecessors. Gilson correctly notes that men like Alfarabi, Avicenna or Averroes, who were neither theologians nor even what the West would have called clerics, were not to be seen at the universities of Paris, of Oxford, nor, in fact, anywhere in Europe in the middle ages. The importation of such an alien stance into Western scholasticism was to have remarkable consequences. The specific (or greatest) problem, I think, boils down to the understanding of the relationship between Philosophy and Theology as taught by Averroes. Gilson is well aware of this (for him) troubling understanding. Averroes, Gilson explains, is trying to both safeguard philosophy from those unworthy of it while, at the same time, trying to protect the faithful from philosophy. Gilson notes that Averroes saw the remedy in an exact definition of the various levels of comprehension of revealed texts and the shepherding of each reader to his exact level. Broadly speaking, according to Averroes, there are three types of people; those capable of understanding philosophical demonstration, those satisfied with probable explanations, i.e. dialectics, and lastly, those that can only respond to exhortation, rhetoric, imagination and passion. Not to put too fine a point on it; theologians are incapable, according to Averroes, of rising above dialectics. Averroes main point here, according to Gilson, is that each spirit has the right and the duty to understand the Koran in the most perfect way of which it is capable. Now, thanks to these three levels of comprehension, [t]wo consequences follow immediately from this principle. The first is that a mind should never seek to raise itself above the degree of interpretation of which it is capable; the second is that one should never divulge to inferior classes of minds the interpretation reserved for superior classes. In fact, as Gilson notes, according to Averroes, theology is the worst type of speculation precisely because it is neither faith nor philosophy, but, rather, a corruption of both. You can see how dangerous, to Christianity and its theologians, such an interpretation necessarily is. The frank teaching of the necessary superiority of philosophy to theology could only wreak havoc in the midst of a scholastic culture where philosophy was always but a tool of theology. It did, in spite of the tremendous effort of Aquinas to make Aristotelianism safe for Christianity. The problem is the Latin Averroists. Men like Siger of Brabant and Boetius of Dacia continued to hold, in the Parisian Faculty of Arts, verboten Averroistic positions. It must be remembered that Averroes is not, in fact, the be-all and end-all of Aristotelian interpretation. As Gilson says, `{t}o speak of an Avicennian, an Averroistic or a Thomistic Aristotle is to point out three different interpretations of a fourth one. The Latin Averroists insisted upon the conclusions of (an Averroistic) philosophy even in the face of Revelation and Dogma. They are, according to Gilson, guilty of identifying Averroes with Aristotle, and Aristotle himself with philosophy and furthermore, maintaining, that necessary philosophical conclusions could contradict the teaching of Christian revelation. Averroism was pitting the universe of the philosophers against that of the theologians, and even though it expressly maintained that the universe of the theologians was the true one, it also maintained that the universe of the philosophers was that of natural reason. There are two crucial points here that one must note: first, we see the so-called double-truth theory in all its naked `splendor and, secondly, we see that Reason and Faith are viewed here as irreconcilable and necessary opposites. It is inconceivable that there would be no reaction. There was: first in 1270, a condemnation of 13 articles by the Bishop of Paris, Etienne Tempier. The tide was turning; for instance, Aquinas himself, at this time, writes `On the Unity of the Intellect against the Averroists. Gilsons handling of the Great Condemnation of 1277 is itself interesting. [W]ithout consulting the Pope even by messenger, Etienne Tempier is supposed to have proceeded motu proprio to a doctrinal condemnation. Gilson seems to imply that the Papacy approved this condemnation even though no evidence has ever been found. Perhaps, since one of the targets of the condemnation -Aquinas- was later canonized, the documentation was `conveniently lost. Be that as it may, the condemnation had dire consequences for any attempt at a unified view of reason and revelation. It is no wonder that, from 1277 on, the belief in the rational demonstration of metaphysical Christian tenets declines, they are now though to be only knowable in the light of revelation. As Gilson correctly observes, Scotism and Ockhamism are dominated by the desire to insure the freedom of the Christian God with respect to the world of things. Greek necessitarianism is the Carthage they are eager to destroy. Gilson goes on to say a little later, to the necessitarianism of the Greeks Scotus will oppose the contingency of the operations of God ad extra and, within man, the radical indetermination of the will. The omnipotent God of Ockham will be another devastating attack against the determinism of the Greeks. In attacking Greek necessitarianism and determinism (i.e., Aristotelianism) the Latin Schoolmen turned away from the via antiqua and towards the via moderna; i.e., the God of Will and his nominalistic world. ...Insofar as this maneuver led to the modern world, we are all still reeling from the consequences of this. This is a first rate study, with superb notes (over 250 pages), that I heartily recommend. Do not shrink from the tragic story it tells. It is shameful that this book hasnt been reprinted.

Educational Philosophy

Der Vestibulare Nystagmus Und Seine Bedeutung Fur Die Neurologische Und Psychiatrische Diagnostik

  10/02/2012       hamer1234      0 Comments

Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfangen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen fur die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfugung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden mussen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Educational Philosophy

Multinationals in the Global Political Economy

  10/02/2012       km2u1qeawib2      0 Comments

Multinationals in the Global Political Economy looks at the new diplomacy between the multinational firm and the nation-state, focusing on the interdependencies, conflictual and co-operative, between the two primary actors in the global economy. An international group of scholars (the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Sweden) from a variety of disciplines (international relations, political science, public policy, economics and business studies) discuss the theory and practice of MNE-state relations in the 1990s.

Educational Philosophy

The Apprentices(The Apothecary #2)

  10/02/2012       korvalex      0 Comments

Two years have passed since Janie Scott last saw Benjamin Burrows, the mysterious apothecary’s defiant son who stole her heart. On the other side of the world, Benjamin and his father are treating the sick and wounded in the war-torn jungles of Vietnam.But Benjamin has also been experimenting with a magical new formula that allows him to communicate with Janie across the globe. When Benjamin discovers that shes in trouble, he calls on their friend Pip for help. The three friends are thrown into a desperate chase around the world to find one another, while unraveling the mystery of what threatens them all. � Acclaimed author Maile Meloy seamlessly weaves together magic and adventure in this breathtaking sequel with stunning illustrations by Ian Schoenherr.

Educational Philosophy

De Amandelboom

  10/02/2012       rileythestrange      0 Comments

De elfjarige Ichmad Hamid woont in de Bezette Gebieden waar iedereen leeft met de angst huizen, banen en bezittingen kwijt te raken. Of nog afschuwelijker, elkaar. Ichmad heeft een bijzonder talent waarvan zijn hele dorp onder de indruk is. Maar dat talent helpt hem niet zijn vrienden en familie te redden, of een veilig leven te bieden. Ichmad wordt met schuldgevoelens overladen als door zijn toedoen zijn inspirerende vader gevangen wordt genomen en zijn familie alles kwijtraakt. Toch ziet de moedige Ichmad dat haat niet de beste manier is met pijn en woede om te gaan. Hij laat zich niet verleiden door deze vernietigende gevoelens. In dit bijzonder ontroerend verhaal volgen we Ichmads leven van onverwoestbare jongen tot bezielde man die ondanks geweld en verdriet altijd hoop houdt en lief heeft. Voor liefhebbers van De vliegeraar van Khaled Hosseini.

Educational Philosophy

Sky Song(Sky Song Trilogy #1)

  10/02/2012       Kaishi      0 Comments

A strange-eyed boy with no memory of his true identity or real parents, Jacob could have no idea of the mortal danger he has been in every day of his fifteen years. Now that danger has found him and suddenly he doesn’t know who he can trust and what is real anymore. All he knows is that his new identity is almost as terrifying as the peril unleashing it has brought. Caught in the universal power struggle of an ancient race of beings and a destiny demanded of him that he does not want, he must fight to protect his own life and everyone he holds dear. But when the time comes, will he be strong enough to make the sacrifices that saving them will demand?Sky Song is the first book of the Sky Song trilogy

Educational Philosophy

The Templar Prophecy(John Hart #1)

  10/02/2012       makcbox      0 Comments

After finding his father brutally murdered, John Hart learns that the Holy Lance, guarded by his ancestors for generations, must be protected at all costsJune 1190. A Knight Templar, Johannes von Hartelius, rescues the Holy Lance from the drowning body of Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade. April 1945. A courier arrives at the Hitlerbunker with a parcel. The Führer calls for a vacuum canister to be brought, seals the documents he has received inside it, attaches the canister to a leather case containing the Holy Lance, and sends it away, guarded by a descendant of Johannes von Hartelius. Present Day: British photojournalist John Hart finds his father crucified, with the mark of a spear in his side. Shattered and bewildered, Hart learns for the very first time of his familys destiny—to be the Guardians of the Lance. As Hart begins to investigate, he discovers a German occult rightwing organization called the Brotherhood of the Lance. Hart infiltrates the organization to investigate his fathers murder—but the secret of the Lance is more terrifying than he could ever have imagined.

Educational Philosophy

Sense and Sensibility

  10/02/2012       llangelll      0 Comments

This edition of Sense and Sensibility has been carefully formatted for your ebook reader with a functional table of contents and contains all the original watercolor illustrations by C.E. Brock.Sense and Sensibility is a novel by Jane Austen, and was her first published work when it appeared in 1811 under the pseudonym A Lady. A work of romantic fiction, Sense and Sensibility is set in southwest England between 1792 and 1797, and portrays the life and loves of the Dashwood sisters, Elinor and Marianne. The novel follows the young ladies to their new home, a meagre cottage on a distant relatives property, where they experience love, romance and heartbreak. The philosophical resolution of the novel is ambiguous: the reader must decide whether sense and sensibility have truly merged.Jane Austen (1775 – 1817) was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism and biting social commentary have gained her historical importance among scholars and critics.

Educational Philosophy
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